FIRST OFFENDER? DEFEND ASSAULT CHARGES.  416-DEFENCE.

We specifically defend First Offenders facing charges of Assault, Domestic Assault and Sexual Assault. We defend young professional including those employed in the financial sector, law enforcement, construction, banking, sales, medicine, government, public transportation, students and even retirees charged with allegations of assault for their first time.

The Firm also has a dedicated practice in Domestic Assaults, which involve allegations of assault between a spouse, including same-sex couples.

In R v. A.M. [2020], the Firm defended an individual charged with assault, assault causing bodily harm and choking after an alleged altercation with his domestic partner. After roughly nine months of negotiations, the Firm was able to resolve the matter without a criminal record by way of peace bond. This was accomplished through affidavit evidence.

In the Firm’s R. v. W.V. [2017], it secured a withdrawal of Assault with a Weapon against a provincial healthcare employee charged with throwing an over-baked pizza at her boyfriend’s head, causing lacerations.

The Firm also resolved two separate Assault allegations with a common law spouse for second offenders, both on the same complainant without a criminal record in its R. v. A.V. [2019] and R. v. M.R. [2019].

In February 2018, the Firm secured a withdrawal of five (5) Assault allegations, including four (4) Assault with a Weapon allegations against a 10 year old child, in its R. v. E.T. [2018].

The Firm defended the President of a Martial Arts Team competing at the 2015 Toronto Pan Am Games, who allegedly struck a female competitor at the Tournament. The Firm obtained video surveillance from the event and was able to prove the allegation was untrue in its R. v. J.F. [2015]. The Firm has also managed to resolve serious assault allegations, such as Assault Causing Bodily Harm without a criminal record. In 2016, in the Firm’s R. v. N.S. [2016], it resolved a serious assault allegation on a 10 year old child at a Toronto Blue Jays Game. The random attack was without motive, ultimately the Firm established underlying mental health issues.

In the Firm’s R. v. R.S. [2016], it resolved an Assault Causing Bodily Harm allegation without a criminal record in its R. v. R.S. [2016], where the accused broke the zygomatic bone of the complainant. In this particular case, the complainant had 3 separate reconstructive surgeries. The Firm obtained independent affidavit evidence which proved the complainant was sexually harassing the accused’s girlfriend and making unwanted sexual advances prior to the confrontation. After 3 years of litigation, the Firm resolved the allegation without a criminal record.

An allegation of Domestic Assault often arises in the context of disputes with a spouse or cohabitant. These serious charges frequently arise in disputes that unexpectedly escalate between good loving people, creating an unwanted scenario for couples where the police continue to pursue charges, irrespective of the whether the complainant wishes to proceed. The Firm also has a dedicated practice in Criminal Harassment allegations in the context of Domestic Relationships. It has handled a number of allegations where repeated emails, text messages and phone calls are made to a spouse or ex-lover.

We frequently handle situations where a complainant impulsively calls the police to help defuse an escalating situation without the intention of laying charges. Once the police attend, however, charges are often still pursued. These charges further create an adverse situation where the parties can no longer communicate or live with one another, possibly for a long time. When approached by clients with charges of domestic assault in these scenarios, our ultimate goal is early, cost-efficient resolution. We have significant experience with legally resuming contact with your spouse or partner.

The Firm secured a withdrawal of an allegation of assault against an IROC regulated employee in its R. v. C.L. [2014] and and financial services employee with Domestic Assault in its R. v. E.T. [2014]. The Firm also secured a withdrawal of an allegation of Sexual Assault against a Jehovah Witness in its R. v. R.K. [2014].

The Firm has defended a number of High Profile Domestic Assault allegations in Toronto for men, women and a number of same-sex couples. The Firm secured a withdrawal of Assault with a Weapon in its R. v. P.L. [2015], where the accused, a City of Toronto employee was charged with throwing a key at his spouse. It further secured a full withdrawal of Assault with a Weapon against a female charged with throwing her purse at her male spouse, in its R. v. P.S. [2016].

The Firm has also handled a number of High Profile Same-Sex Domestic Assault allegations in Toronto. It secured a full withdrawal of Assault where both same-sex males were severely injured in a mutual fight in its R. v. M.R. [2016]. The Firm also secured a withdrawal of Assault with a Weapon where the same sex partner pulled a kitchen knife on his spouse, in its R. v. P.T. [2016].

The Firm has  defended a range of sexual assault allegations, specifically dated allegations of sexual assault and incest as far back as 1977. In our R. v. M.M. [2014], it defended the accused charged with Rape and Sexual Assault from nearly 40 years ago. In its R. v. W.C. [2015], it defended a dated allegation of incest from the complainants father from the 1980s.

Having a complete understanding of the Elements of the Criminal Offence, Your Rights and the Consequences associated with a Criminal Record is necessary before any legal decisions are made.

Global News Morning Show: Sentencing Arguments in Assault case of Dafonte Miller.

Breakfast Television: Role of Mental Health in Court Proceedings.

Global News National: Bruce McArthur will not serve consecutive sentences – here’s why.

CBC Radio: Interview with Mayor John Tory and Jordan Donich on CBC Radio.

CTV News National: Handgun ban supported by majority of Canadians: Nanos survey.

Global News: Should Canada ban Handguns? Debate stirs after Danforth shooting.

Global News: How difficult is it to get a legal handgun in Canada.

Legal Information

Assault

What is an Assault?
What are some of Penalties for a Conviction of Assault?
What is an Assault with a Weapon?
What are some of the Penalties for a Conviction of Assault with a Weapon?
What is an Assault Causing Bodily Harm?
What are some of the Penalties for a Conviction of Assault Causing Bodily Harm?
What is Aggravated Assault?
What are the Penalties for a Conviction of Aggravated Assault?
What is a Peace Bond?
What happens if I Breach a s.810 Peace Bond?
What is the difference between a s.810 Peace Bond and a Common Law Peace Bond?

Domestic Assault

What is Domestic Assault?
What is the Difference between Domestic Assault and other allegations of Assault?
Can a Domestic Assault Charge arise between Homosexual Couples?
What are the Penalties for Domestic Assault?
What is Self-Defence?
What is a s.110 Weapons Prohibition?
Do you have to be Married to be Charged with Domestic Assault?
What is a Failure to Comply with Condition of an Undertaking or Recognizance?
What are some of the Penalties Associated with a Failure to Comply?

Sexual Assault

What is Sexual Assault?
What are some of the Penalties for Sexual Assault?
What is the Difference between Sexual Assault and Sexual Interference?
What is the Age of Consent?
What is a s.487 DNA Order?

Additional Resources

Assault
Assaulting a Peace Officer
Sexual Assault Law in Canada
Consequences of a Criminal Record
Domestic Abuse
First Offenders
Immigration Consequences
Keeping Charges Private
Travel & US Waivers
Vulnerable Sector Screening
Elements of a Crime
Your Rights

Assault Law in Canada

What is an Assault?
Section 265(1) of the Criminal Code sets out three scenarios that will constitute an assault:

  • When a person intentionally applies force to another person, either directly or indirectly, without their consent.
  • An act or gesture will constitute an assault if (1) a persons uses such an act or gesture to attempt or threaten to apply force to another person and (2) if this causes the other person to believe on reasonable grounds that the alleged attacker has the present ability to effect his purpose; or
  • When a person accosts or impedes another person or begs, while openly wearing or carrying a weapon or an imitation thereof.

This provision of the Criminal Code covers all forms of assault, including sexual assault, sexual assault with a weapon, threats to a third party or causing bodily harm and aggravated sexual assault.

All assaults require intention on the part of the alleged attacker. They also require an absence of consent from the complainant. However, the common law sets out some restrictions on when complainants can consent to assaults. A complainant cannot consent to a criminal act, such as assault, which may cause “serious hurt or non-trivial bodily harm.”

What are some of the Penalties for a Conviction of Assault?

Penalties for a conviction of assault will vary depending on the specific circumstances of the offence, the characteristics of the offender and complainant and the presence of any aggravating or mitigating factors.

Section 266 of the Criminal Code sets out that a conviction of assault can result in a penalty of up to five years imprisonment when the Crown proceeds by indictment.

What is an Assault with a Weapon?

Section 267 of the Criminal Code sets out that an assault with a weapon occurs when an individual commits an assault (in one of the prescribed manners listed under Section 265) and during the commission of that assault carries, uses or threatens to use a weapon or an imitation thereof.

What are some of the Penalties for a Conviction of Assault with a Weapon?

Penalties for a conviction of assault with a weapon will vary depending on the specific circumstances of the offence, the characteristics of the offender and complainant and the presence of any aggravating or mitigating factors.

Section 267 of the Criminal Code sets out that a conviction of assault with a weapon can result in a penalty of up to ten years imprisonment when the Crown proceeds by indictment.

What is an Assault Causing Bodily Harm?

Section 267 of the Criminal Code sets out that an assault causing bodily harm occurs when an individual commits an assault (in one of the prescribed manners listed under Section 265) and during the commission of that assault causes bodily harm to the complainant.

What are some of the Penalties for a Conviction of Assault Causing Bodily Harm?

Penalties for a conviction of assault causing bodily harm will vary depending on the specific circumstances of the offence, the characteristics of the offender and complainant and the presence of any aggravating or mitigating factors.

Section 267 of the Criminal Code sets out that a conviction of assault causing bodily harm can result in a penalty of up to ten years imprisonment when the Crown proceeds by indictment.

What is Aggravated Assault?

Section 268 of the Criminal Code sets out that an aggravated assault occurs when an individual commits an assault (in one of the prescribed manners listed under Section 265) and during the commission of that assault wounds, maims, disfigures or endangers the life of the complainant.

What are the Penalties for a Conviction of Aggravated Assault?

Penalties for a conviction of aggravated assault will vary depending on the specific circumstances of the offence, the characteristics of the offender and complainant and the presence of any aggravating or mitigating factors.

Section 268 of the Criminal Code sets out that a conviction of aggravated assault can result in a penalty of up to fourteen years imprisonment.

What is a Peace Bond?

A peace bond is court order issued by a judge requiring an individual to keep the peace and remain on good behaviour for the duration specified in the order. This means the individual must refrain from being re-arrested until the peace bond has ended or they will be in violation of the order. Depending on the circumstances surrounding the offence and the background of the accused, the court may also impose conditions that the accused must abide by until the peace bond has run out, or until as indicated otherwise by the court. Commonly imposed conditions include; no contact conditions prohibiting the accused from contacting certain people or locations, informing the court of any changes in residence or employment or prohibiting the accused from possessing firearms. A peace bond may also require the accused pay a certain amount of money to the court which will be forfeited should the accused breach the conditions of the bond.

Section 810 of the Criminal Code stipulates that a peace bond may be ordered by the court in situations where the judge presiding over the case is given an information that causes them or another person to fear on reasonable grounds that the accused will cause personal injury to the complainant, their spouse, common law partner, children or property.

It is important to state that entering into a peace bond means you are entering into a legally binding agreement with the court. This does not mean you have a criminal record, however a peace bond will likely appear in background checks run by police or law enforcement agencies while it is still active. Additionally, breaching a section 810 peace bond can result in criminal charges being laid against the accused and a potential criminal record.

What happens if I Breach a s.810 Peace Bond?

There are many potential consequences if you breach a Section 810 peace bond. If you have guaranteed a monetary amount with your peace bond, than you may be expected to pay that amount in the event of a breach.

Furthermore, Section 811 of the Criminal Code sets out that it is a criminal offence for a person bound by a Section 810 peace bond to breach that recognizance. A conviction under Section 811 could result in a penalty of up to two years imprisonment if the Crown proceeds by indictment.

What is the difference between a s.810 Peace Bond and a Common Law Peace Bond?

The main difference between a common law peace bond and a section 810 peace bond is that a common law peace bond is issued by the courts exercising their common law jurisdiction while a section 810 peace bond is issued by the courts pursuant to a statute. As such, there are limits surrounding a common law peace bond which do not exist with common law peace bonds. This means courts have more discretion when issuing common law peace bonds. Additionally, section 811 of the Criminal Code outlines the remedies for peace bond breaches. In cases of common law peace bond breaches the courts will determine what the appropriate remedy is on a case-by-case basis.

Domestic Assault

What is Domestic Assault?

Domestic assault is an assault, as defined under section 265 of the Criminal Code that occurs in the context of an intimate relationship.

Section 265(1) of the Criminal Code sets out three scenarios that will constitute an assault:

  1. When a person intentionally applies force to another person, either directly or indirectly, without their consent.
  2. An act or gesture will constitute an assault if (1) a persons uses such an act or gesture to attempt or threaten to apply force to another person and (2) if this causes the other person to believe on reasonable grounds that the alleged attacker has the present ability to effect his purpose; or
  3. When a person accosts or impedes another person or begs, while openly wearing or carrying a weapon or an imitation thereof.

If one of the above assaults takes place in the context of an intimate relationship, it falls into the category of “domestic assault.”

What is the Difference between Domestic Assault and other allegations of Assault?

Assault covers a wide range of situations and relationships between individuals. Assaults can happen between strangers, neighbours, friends, family members or basically any other two individuals in society. Comparatively, domestic assaults are a particular category of assaults that occur between intimate partners.

Domestic assaults are treated differently by the Crown prosecutor, because of the heightened awareness around the issue. The Crown Policy Manual states that domestic assaults will be prosecuted “with vigour” and it identifies domestic abuse as a prevalent social problem. Crown policy states that given the prevalence of partner abuse and the dangers inherent in it, it will usually be in the public interest to proceed with  these prosecutions.

In some jurisdictions there are special “Domestic Violence” courts that deal with charges related to intimate partner crimes on a special date and time, separately from other criminal matters.

Can a Domestic Assault Charge arise between Homosexual Couples?

Yes, intimate relationships include those between both opposite sex and same sex partners.

What are the Penalties for Domestic Assault?

Penalties for a conviction of domestic assault will vary depending on the specific circumstances of the offence, the characteristics of the offender and complainant and the presence of any aggravating or mitigating factors.

Section 266 of the Criminal Code sets out that a conviction of assault can result in a penalty of up to five years imprisonment when the Crown proceeds by indictment. The same penalty applies to assaults in the domestic context.

However, domestic assaults do differ from other assaults because they often occur between persons who live in the same home. As such, they almost always result in the police holding a person charged with domestic assault overnight, until they can have a bail hearing in the morning. Assault charges also often involve a bail condition that the accused not communicate with the complainant, which is particularly troublesome and can be a much larger burden in the domestic context.

What is Self-Defence?

Self defence is an absolute defence the accused can raise to try and avoid liability for committing an offence. Self defence raises a “justification” defence – meaning that it challenges the wrongfulness of an action which technically constitutes a crime. In such circumstances, we consider the actions rightful, not wrongful. For example, if someone is in the process of attacking you with a weapon and you punch them in the face to stop them, this is technically an assault but it is justified in the circumstances as self defence.

Self defence is a statutory defence controlled by Section 34 of the Criminal Code, which sets out that a person is not guilty of an offence if their action, which would normally constitute a criminal act.

What is a s.110 Weapons Prohibition?

Section 110 of the Criminal Code permits discretionary weapons prohibition orders to be made. A discretionary order means that a judge has the option to make an order if one of the listed offences is involved and an application is made; however, he or she is not required to make an order. Such a discretionary order can be made if a person is convicted or discharged of:

1. An offence that involves violence; or

2. An offence that involves a firearm, crossbow, prohibited weapon, restricted weapon, prohibited device, ammunition, or explosive substance, and the offender was prohibited from possessing such items at the time of the offence.

An order under Section 110 will prohibit the possession of firearms, crossbows, restricted weapons, ammunition, or explosives, prohibited weapons, prohibited devices, and prohibited ammunition for a maximum of up to ten years.

For a Section 110 order to be made, the order must be in the interests of the safety of the accused and other members of the public. Under Section 110(3) if the judge declines a request for an order under Section 110, the judge must give reasons for declining.

Do you have to be Married to be Charged with Domestic Assault?

No, you do not have to be married to be charged with domestic assault. Intimate relationships vary in duration and legal formality, and include current and former dating, common law and married couples.

What is a Failure to Comply with Condition of an Undertaking or Recognizance?

Section 145 of the Criminal Code makes it a crime not to comply with a condition of an undertaking or recognizance. Often a court or police officer will order persons to comply with certain conditions, most commonly through a recognizance of bail or through an undertaking. Once these conditions are ordered, it is a criminal offence to breach one.

The Criminal Code sets out a number of elements required for an individual to be guilty of the offence failure to comply:

  1. A person must be at large on an undertaking or recognizance given to or entered into before a justice or judge
  2. He or she must be must be bound to comply with a condition of that undertaking or recognizance;
  3. He or she must fail, without lawful excuse to comply with the condition

For example, if you are released from custody on a recognizance of bail, you will be subject to conditions. If one of those conditions is to abstain from the consumption of alcohol and a police officer finds you in a bar or tavern, you will be charged with the offence “failure to comply with condition of undertaking or recognizance” under Section 145(3) of the Criminal Code.

What are some of the Penalties Associated with a Failure to Comply?

Section 145(3) of the Criminal Code sets out that a conviction of failure to comply with condition of undertaking or recognizance can result in a penalty of up to two years imprisonment when the Crown proceeds by indictment.

A conviction for failure to comply will result in a criminal record.

Sexual Assault

What is Sexual Assault?

Section 271 of the Criminal Code outlines the offence of sexual assault as an assault that is sexual in nature and violates the sexual integrity of the victim. To determine whether or not an assault qualifies as a sexual assault, the court must look at whether a reasonable person would recognize the sexual or carnal nature of the assault that occurred. According to the Supreme Court of Canada, there are several factors that the courts should take into consideration when making this determination:

  • The area of the body that was touched by the accused
  • Whether the contact was sexual in nature
  • The circumstances in which the contact between the alleged victim and the accused occurred
  • Gestures or words used by the accused during the contact/assault
  • Any other factors that may be relevant including coercion, force or threats made by the accused
  • The intentions of the accused in making the contact with the alleged victim

Whether or not a court will consider an assault a sexual assault will not depend solely on the area of the victims body that was touched. The contact made between the alleged victim and the accused must be sexual in nature and must have violated the sexual integrity of the victim.

As outlined in the Criminal Code there are three different types of sexual assault charges that can be laid against an accused. These charges include:

  • 271 – Sexual Assault
    • Sexual Assault encompasses all assaults that are sexual in nature and that violate the sexual integrity of the alleged victim that are not covered in the other two provisions (s. 272 & s. 273)
  • 272 – Sexual Assault with a Weapon, Threats to a Third Party or Causing Bodily Harm
    • Sexual Assault with a Weapon, Threats to a Third Party or Causing Bodily Harm occurs when, during the commission of a sexual assault, the accused also commits one of the following acts:
      • (a) Carries, uses or threatens to use a weapon or an imitation of a weapon;
      • (b) Threatens to cause bodily harm to a person other than the complainant;
      • (c) Causes bodily harm to the complainant; or
      • (d) Is a party to the offence with any other person
  • 273 – Aggravated Sexual Assault
    • Aggravated Sexual Assault occurs when in committing a sexual assault, the accused disfigures, maims, wounds, or endangers the life of the alleged victim

What are some of the Penalties for Sexual Assault?

Being charged with sexual assault is a very serious matter and a conviction can result in very serious penalties for the offender. The sentence that will be imposed upon an accused will depend on the type of sexual assault that the accused was charged with, the severity of the assault, the circumstances in which the assault occurred and any relevant background information pertaining to the accused. Additionally, the court is required to weigh the mitigating and aggravating factors in the case prior to imposing a sentence.

Section 271 – Sexual Assault

If an accused is charged under section 271 of the Criminal Code with simple sexual assault, the Crown will elect whether to proceed summarily or by indictment. In cases where the Crown proceeds summarily, the maximum penalty that the court can impose on the offender is two years less a day imprisonment and the minimum they can impose is ninety days imprisonment in cases where the alleged victim was under the age of sixteen. If the Crown chooses to proceed be indictment, which is generally reserved for more serious cases, the maximum penalty that can be imposed by the court is ten years imprisonment. If the victim was under the age of sixteen the minimum penalty the court can impose is one year imprisonment.

Section 272 – Sexual Assault with a Weapon, Threats to a Third Party or Causing Bodily Harm

If an accused is charged under section 272 of the Criminal Code with Sexual Assault with a Weapon, Threats to a Third Party or Causing Bodily Harm the maximum sentence that can be imposed by the courts is fourteen years imprisonment. In cases where the alleged assault was committed with a firearm, where the victim was under the age of sixteen, where the assault was committed in relation to a criminal association or where the assault was a subsequent offence, the Criminal Code imposes mandatory minimum sentences.

Section 273 – Aggravated Sexual Assault

If an accused is charged under section 273 of the Criminal Code with Aggravated Sexual Assault, the maximum sentence that the court can impose is a term of life imprisonment. In addition, the Criminal Code stipulates that there are mandatory minimum sentences for cases where the assault was committed using a firearm, where it was committed in relation to a criminal organization, where the victim in the case was under the age of sixteen or where the assault was a subsequent offence for the accused.

What is the difference between Sexual Assault and Sexual Interference?

The main differences between sexual assault and sexual interference are the age of the complainant and the nature of the sexual contact.

Sexual interference charges can only arise in situations where the complainant is under the age of sixteen years of age. Comparatively, sexual assault charges arise anytime there is an assault of a sexual nature, regardless of the age of the complainant.

Sexual interference requires touching of a young person, either directly or indirectly, for a sexual purpose. Comparatively, sexual assault may occur without touching between persons. Sexual assault covers a broader range of conduct.

What is the Age of Consent?

The age of consent refers to the age at which a young person can legally consent to sexual activity. The age of consent for sexual activity in Canada is sixteen years old. Nobody under the age of sixteen can legally consent to sexual activity and it is a criminal offence to engage them in sexual acts. There are “close in age” or “peer group” exceptions.

The age of consent where sexual activity “exploits” the young person (i.e. prostitution) is eighteen years of age.

It is important to note that all sexual activity without consent, regardless of age, is also a criminal offence.

What is a s.487 DNA Order?

Section 487 DNA orders are discretionary orders made at sentencing for an offender’s DNA to be collected and added to a national database. This order is made after an accused person has been convicted, discharged or found not criminally responsible for an offence that falls under Section 487 primary or secondary designated offences. The DNA is taken by a law enforcement official and then entered into a Convicted Offenders Index.

Section 487 also allows the Crown to apply to a provincial judge for an order to take DNA from an individual for the purpose of forensic DNA analysis for the purposes of investigating a criminal offence.

Where do you Defend Assault Charges?

The Firm defend assault charges across Ontario, some of the areas we service include: Barrie, Brampton, Guelph, Kitchener, London and Milton and Newmarket.

Quick Facts

Can you Drop Assault Charges in Canada?

In general you cannot drop charges of assault in Canada. Once an incident is reported, the local police will then likely proceed with laying charges. The matter then proceeds to court, where depending on the evidence and other relevant factors, a Crown Attorney may withdraw the charges.

What is the Punishment for Assault in Canada?

Penalties for a conviction of assault will vary depending on the specific circumstances of the offence, the offender, whether there are injuries, and if its a first offence. Section 266 of the Criminal Code sets out that a conviction of assault can result in a penalty of up to five years imprisonment when the Crown proceeds by indictment. However, in many cases the Crown proceeds summarily and the offender will not be sentenced to jail.

What is s.266 Assault?

Section 266 of the Criminal Code sets out the legal punishments if someone is convicted of assault. This sections specifies that the Crown may proceed by indictment or summary conviction. The facts alleged and the injuries or whether the offence is a domestic assault, will often dictate how the Crown proceeds under this section.

Will I go to Jail for Common Assault?

There are a number of factors used to determine whether an offender is sentenced to jail for common assault. These will include the alleged injuries, whether the offender has a criminal record and the circumstances surrounding the offence, such as whether the assault was committed against a spouse or by an adult on a child.

How to beat an Assault Charge?

There are a number of ways to avoid a criminal conviction to assault. In some cases the Crown is unable to prove the identity of the accused or the person being charged may argue self-defence. A person being charged with assault also has a number of rights and depending on the circumstances a lawyer could argue an accused's rights were breached and seek a remedy

What if the victim doesn't show up to Court?

Generally the police will subpoena all witnesses to court, including the victim who is required to give evidence. If the complainant does not show up for trial, the defence could attempt to have the charges stayed. In rare circumstances the Crown could attempt to have the victim testify by video link

Can an Assault Charge affect my Immigration or Travel to the U.S?

It is important to get proper legal advice before resolving an allegation of Assault. Citizenship and Immigration Canada will require disclosure if the applicant is applying for a visa or residency. Also, U.S. authorities might require a U.S. Waiver depending on the nature of the Assault charge and how it was resolved.

Is it a Defence if I was Drunk?

Generally intoxication does not excuse the alleged criminal conduct, although alcohol is frequently involved in minor assaults. The Crown could argue that the accused is responsible for his or her actions by choosing to drink and therefore fully responsible for any injuries

416-DEFENCE | 416-333-3623