Reports or Records

Reports or records of any kind that are not stored electronically are documentary evidence. This could include anything from financial records, phone records, paper mail correspondence to business records and reports. With mass digitalization, this type of evidence is used at a declining rate.

Before being admitted into evidence, the report or record must be authenticated by a person capable of doing so. In many cases, this is the person responsible for preparing and/or maintaining the report or record.


Person A is on trial for fraud offences. The Crown introduces business records from person A’s business, showing that person A had been misappropriating trust funds belonging to his real estate clients. Person A’s personal assistant who was responsible for maintaining the records was called to testify at trial to authenticate the records.

Common Examples of Reports of Records (not electronic)

  • Financial records/or reports
  • Business records and/or reports
  • Phone records
  • Medical records
  • Paper mail correspondence

More Legal Information

Law Newbie™ is a free legal assistant developed by our criminal lawyers to help you understand the law.


In criminal cases, there are very strict rules governing what evidence can be used and how it can be used.

The rights enjoyed of all those within Canada are contained in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Criminal procedure is the process by which an accused person is arrested and brought through the justice system.

Sentencing refers to the punishment that is ordered when an individual is found guilty of a criminal offence.

Firearm Smoke

Offences in Canada are listed in the Criminal Code. They include crimes related to people, vehicles and weapons.