Reports or Records

Reports or Records

Reports or records of any kind that are not stored electronically are documentary evidence. This could include anything from financial records, phone records, paper mail correspondence to business records and reports. With mass digitalization, this type of evidence is used at a declining rate.

Before being admitted into evidence, the report or record must be authenticated by a person capable of doing so. In many cases, this is the person responsible for preparing and/or maintaining the report or record.


Person A is on trial for fraud offences. The Crown introduces business records from person A’s business, showing that person A had been misappropriating trust funds belonging to his real estate clients. Person A’s personal assistant who was responsible for maintaining the records was called to testify at trial to authenticate the records.

Common Examples of Reports of Records (not electronic)

  • Financial records/or reports
  • Business records and/or reports
  • Phone records
  • Medical records
  • Paper mail correspondence